Занятие 3

Ключ к временам группы Present

Простое настоящее SIMPLE PRESENT

Значение 1: Регулярное действие в настоящем.

Наречия частоты действия: usually; regularly; every day; every week; every year; often; frequently; sometimes; occasionally; seldom; rarely; never (i.e., zero regularity); always (i.e., regularly, usually); on Fridays; on weekends.

I usually work till eight

He writes two letters every day.

We always go to this store

He plays tennis on Saturdays

Does it rain often in your hometown?

They seldom go to the movies.

Значение 2: Констатация факта, общеизвестной истины, профессии, положения или состояния. Наречия времени не требуются.

The sun rises in the east.

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

What does she do? – She works as a teacher.

He lives in Moscow and works at a hospital.

She plays the piano well.

She likes oranges and bananas.

Their house is very small.

Примечание: Действия по графику. Simple Present употребляется вместо Simple Future для будущих действий согласно графику / расписанию (например, об общественном транспорте, фильмах, магазинах, банках).

The show starts in two hours.

The train arrives at six tomorrow.

The department store opens at 9:00 a.m.

I work next Saturday.

Примечание: Придаточные времени и условия. Simple Present употребляется вместо Simple Future в придаточных предложениях времени и условия, так как будущее время не разрешено в этих придаточных предложениях.

Настоящее продолженное PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Значение 1: Действие происходит / продолжается в настоящий момент, в момент говорения.

Наречия времени: now; right now; at the moment.

He is writing a new novel now.

He is teaching at Redwood this year.

What is she doing these days? – She is working for a newspaper.

I am studying economics at a business school.

They are building their own house.

Prices are rising again.

Her health is getting better.

Примечание: Глаголы состояния

Как правило, глаголы, выражающие умственное или эмоциональное состояние, умственное или чувственное восприятие, обладание и другие виды состояния, не употребляются в продолженных временах. Такие глаголы называют глаголами состояния или непродолженными глаголами, т.к. они не выражают действия или процесса действия (в противоположность глаголам действия).

Stative verbs: understand, know, remember, forget, doubt, believe, suppose, think (in the meaning "assume, suppose"), mean, recognize, realize, like, love, hate, want, need, prefer, smell (in the meaning "to give off a particular scent"), taste (i.e., to have a particular flavor), hear, see, feel, look (in the meaning "appear, seem"), seem, be, belong, own, possess, have (in the meaning "possess"), cost, owe, include, contain, and some others.

Примечание: Запланированные действия

Present Continuous употребляется вместо Simple Future для будущих действий согласно планам людей, т.е. заранее запланированные или заранее подготовленные будущие действия. Фраза be going to широко употребляется в устной и письменной речи для показа запланированного будущего действия.

She's leaving on Tuesday.

She's going to leave on Tuesday.

I'm having dinner with Tom tomorrow.

I'm going to have dinner with Tom tomorrow.

He is going to a concert this evening.

We are going to buy a summer house this year.

Настоящее совершенное PRESENT PERFECT

Значение 1: Действие только что закончилось.

Наречия времени: already; just; yet (in questions and negative sentences).

I have just done it.

She has already seen him.

He hasn't returned from work yet.

Have they arrived yet?

Значение 2: Информирование о том, как прошлое обстоит к настоящему моменту.

Наречия времени: ever; never; once; twice; several times.

I have never seen this film.

Have you ever been to Mexico?

He has visited his aunt twice already.

Значение 3: Результат произошедших действий к настоящему моменту.

Наречия времени: by now; up to now; so far; by the present moment; before (i.e., by the present

He has written ten letters to this company by now.

So far, she has read fourteen novels by Stephen King.

Up to now, I haven't found this book.

I've seen this movie before.

He has worked in several companies since he graduated from college.

Значение 4: Действие продлилось какое-то время к настоящему моменту.

Наречия времени:

lately; so far; by now; since; for an hour; for a week; for five years.

He has lived here for years.

She has slept for two hours already.

How long have you known Anna?

I've known her for a year by now.

They have worked hard lately.

Настоящее совершенное продолженное PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Значение: Деятельность продлилась какое-то время (все еще длится) к настоящему моменту.

Наречия времени: lately; so far; by now; since; for an hour; for a week; for five years.

He's been living here for three years.

I've been writing since morning.

They've been working hard lately.

How long have you been waiting?

I've been waiting for about an hour.

She has been working as a teacher for seven years already.

Глаголы состояния обычно употребляются во времени Present Perfect вместо Present Perfect Continuous.

I've known him for a year by now.

Практическая часть.

Упражнение 1.

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.

1. My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I  (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes. At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).

2. My sister (to get) up at eight o’clock. 3. She (to be) a schoolgirl. She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 4. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 5. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 6. After breakfast she (to go) to school. 7. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 8. She (to speak) French well

Упражнение 2.

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.

(СЕЙЧАС) 1. Я читаю. 2. Он не пишет. 3. Мы не работаем. 4. Вы читаете? 5. Он спит? 6. Коля и Миша играют в футбол. 7. Катя играет на рояле. 8. Она не поет. 9. Моя сестра спит. 10. Папа пьет чай? 11. Твои родители пьют чай? 12. Я не сплю. 13. Она сидит за столом. 14. Мы делаем упражнение. 15. Мы не купаемся. 16. Они играют во дворе? 17. Нина и Аня моют пол. 18. Коля помогает маме. 19. Ты помогаешь папе? 20. Моя сестра читает интересную книгу.

Упражнение 3.

В следующих предложениях измените время глагола на Present Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The pupils are writing the dictation. 2. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem. 3. I am learning a poem 4. She is telling them an interesting story. 5. Kate is sweeping the floor. 6. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him. 7. I am eating my breakfast. 8. We are drinking water. 9. He is bringing them some meat and vegetables. 10 You are putting the dishes on the table.

Упражнение 4.

Составьте вопросы по образцу, используя данные слова: (you / ever / be / to Italy) - Have you ever been to Italy?

1. You ever / be / to South America?

2. You / read / any English books?

3. You / live / in this town all your life?

4. How many times / you / be / in love?

5. What's / the most beautiful country / you /ever / visit?

6. You ever / speak / to a famous person?

Упражнение 5.

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Perfect Continuous.

  1. а) Они все еще спорят. б) Они спорят уже два часа. 2. а) Она еще спит. b) Она спит уже два часа. 3. а) Он еще делает уроки. б) Он делает уроки уже три часа. 4. а) Мальчики все еще играют в футбол. b) Они играют в футбол уже сорок минут. 5. а) Девочки еще переодеваются. b) Они переодеваются уже полчаса. 6. а) Она все еще изучает испанский язык. b) Она уже два года изучает испанский язык.

Упражнение 6.

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из следующих времен: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous.

1. He (to run) now. He (to run) for ten minutes without any rest. 2. What they (to do) now? They (to work) in the reading-room. They (to work) there for already three hours. 3. Where he (to be) now? He (to be) in the garden. He (to play) volley-ball with his friends. They (to play) since breakfast time. 4. I (to live) in St. Petersburg. I (to live) in St. Petersburg since 1990. 5. She already (to do) her homework for two hours; but she (not yet to do) half of it. 6. I (to wait) for you since two o'clock. 7. What you (to do)? I (to read). I (to read) for already two hours. I already (to read) sixty pages. 8. This man (to be) a writer. He (to write) books. He (to write) books since he was a young man. He already (to write) eight books. 9. What you (to do) here since morning?