English for Aviation

Sue Ellis Terence Gerighty

Oxford 2008

Unit 1 Exercise 1

Exchange 1

Er … 363, start up and push at 05.

Tower, er 363, just started pushing back now. You do know there’s another plane pushing back from the next stand?

Say again 363.

There’s another pushing back on the next stand. We’ve had to stop.

Er, 363, stand number give me.

Er, say again.

Number give me. Your number, please?

Er – we’re 363.

No, I ask you stand number.

Oh, you want our stand number. Yeah – we’re on Charlie 61. 363.

363, you not C63?

Negative. We’re definitely on Charlie 61. 363.

Ah! Sorry, sir. Stand Charlie 61.

Exchange 2

X7420, confirm heading 040.

Roger, heading 040.

X7420, turn right, heading 340.

Did you hear that? He did say right, didn’t he? Er – can you confirm that, please? X7420

X7-er-X-er-420. Right turn heading 3-er-40. Climb-er-flight level 1-er-00.

That’s what I thought. Does this guy know right from left? I’m sure that should be left – I’m going to check again. Er – Control – please confirm right onto heading 340. X7420.

X7420, turn – er – right – er – heading 340.

Roger, OK. We’re at 3800. If that’s what he wants, that’s what we’ll do.

X7420, turn left, left. I say again – turn left!

Unit 1 Exercise 3

Gatwick Approach, Speedbird 209. Flight level 110. Heading 100. ETA Isle of Mann 1005.

Shanwick Control, BD744A requesting Oceanic clearance. Estimating 58 West, 10 North at 1310 UTC. Requesting flight level 350, Mach .80.

Speedbird 567A is cleared 16000 on 1010 hectopascals. Expect to cross GOOSE – Golf Oscar Oscar Sierra Echo – level at 120, speed 250 knots.

London Control, United Air 955. Flight level 90. Heading 230. ETA Saint Abbs Head 1005.

Roger Prestwick, 317A is cleared 58 North, 10 West, 60 North, 20 West, 60 North, 40 West, 58 North, 50 West, PORGY – Papa Oscar Romeo Golf Yankee. Maintain 350 Mach .80.

UK Air 298A Heavy. Taxi to hold R for runway 31. QNH 1016. FALCON 4F departure. FALCON – Foxtrot Alpha Lima Charlie Oscar November. Squawk 7412.

Unit 1 Exercise 6

Exchange 1

Er – yeah. Good morning there. Quality 405. A departing 747 reported wind shear at 800 feet. Airspeed loss 25 knots, strong right shift. Let me know if you have a problem, please. And – have a nice flight! Bye.

Exchange 2

Speedbird 456 request descent.

Speedbird 456 maintain flight level 260 expect descent after HERON

Maintaining flight level 260. Speedbird 456.

Exchange 3

Bellevue Tour, 038-NT, nous avons les installations en vue. Pourrait-on envisager une approche a vue main droite pour la 31 droite?

038-NT, vous me confirmes le terrain en vue?

Er – Believue Tower. Stinson N97962. Request vectors to base-leg 31 right.

Stinson N97962. Yeah – go ahead …

Affirm NT, nous avons les installations en vue.

Alors autorise approche a vue main droite 31 droite, NT.

Er – Believue Tower. Stinson N97962. I say again. Request vectors to base-leg 31 right.

Exchange 4

BX ready for take-off request left turn out heading 300 degrees.

BX, left turn cleared. After departure climb not above altitude 2000 feet until reaching zone boundary.

Left turn approved. Climbing to 2000 feet until reaching zone boundary. BX.

Exchange 5

Er – hi, there N526. You’ve got a south westerly blowing in there. Around about 10 knots. You’re OK to land. Runway 28.

Unit 1 Exercise 7

Tukubu Tower, Blaze 606. We have a problem and we’d like a priority landing. We have a violent passenger on board.

Say again 606. I don’t understand.

We have an unruly passenger on board. We have a violent passenger. He has hit a member of the cabin crew. Request priority landing.

606, I’m sorry, sir. I do not understand your problem, sir.

This passenger is endangering the safety of the flight. He is drunk.

The safety of the flight is in danger?

Affirm. We have an aggressive passenger. We need to get on the ground as soon as possible.

606, understand you have a problem with a passenger, sir? Do you need medical assistance?

Negative. We have a medical doctor on board and do not need medical assistance. We need services to remove this unruly passenger from the plane.

606, the police and the airport authorities will meet you, sir.

Unit 1 Exercise 11

Exchange 1

Wolfair 60,good morning. Identified. Proceeding into Alfa. Vectoring 05.

Direct Alfa 05. Wolfair 60. Can I keep up this high speed a bit longer? Wolfair 60.

Wolfair 60. For the time being, yes. I’ll get back to you in a minute.

Exchange 2

B67, will you let me know what your intentions are for the main landing gear?

Roger. We’ll try to lower the gear again, but if I’m still unable to release the nose gear – if it still stays up – then we’ll land with all three up. B67.

B67, do you want to come in for a low pass? We can check out your landing gear when you pass over.

OK, roger. B67.

B67, have you got the field in sight?

B67, affirm. When I get to you the gear should be down. B67.

B67, roger. OK, make a low pass over runway 23 for a landing gear check.

Unit 2 Exercise 8

Exchange 1

Luton Tower, Big Red 553. Radio check 121.2

Big Red 553, Luton Tower, Readability 5.

Big Red 553.

Exchange 2

963, it looks as though your pitot head cover is still on. Would you please check?

Unit 2 Exercise 9

Exchange 1

Ground, Speedbird 305. Radio check box 1 on 119.4.

Say again, calling.

Speedbird 305. I want to do a radio check on box 1. 119.4, please.

Sorry – you’re totally unreadable.

Exchange 2

Er, yes. Ground, I want to check on the load today, Fedex 36.

Fedex 36, go ahead, sir.

I’ve got a quantity of aerosols – for insect spraying. They’re OK – but I’ve got a live snake on board, and there’s no documentation. Fedex 36.

Fedex 36. no sir. There’s no special documentation needed.

You’re sure? Won’t I need documents on arrival in Kuala Lumpur? Fedex 36.

Fedex 36 no, it’s fine sir. You don’t need any documents for Malaysia now.

Exchange 3

Ground, request start up. B344.

Sorry, B344. I’ve no flight plan for B344. Stand by. I’ll check you out.

Ground, the plan was filed a couple of hours ago. B344.

B344, my apologies. The computer has failed again and so that’s obviously the reason.

While we’re waiting for our clearance, is there a clear area we can taxi to? I want to do a run-up. B344.

B344, stand by. I’ll get back to you very shortly. OK, er, B344 – I have your flight plan. Start up approved. The temperature is plus 17.

Unit 2 Exercise 14

Gatwick Information Hotel, 1755 automated weather. Wind 260 degrees, 15 knots, gusting 27 knots, visibility 6 kilometres, light snow, broken 2600, overcast 3500. Temperature –5, dew point –11, QNH 997 hectopascals. ILS runway 23 left approach in use. Landing runway 23 left, departing runway 23 right. Notice to airmen runway 18 closed. Read back all runway assignments and hold short instructions. Use caution for birds in the vicinity of the active runway. Advise the controller on initial contact you have Hotel.

Unit 2 Exercise 15

Luton International information Bravo, weather at 1355 UTC. Wind 300 at 8 knots, visibility 5 kilometres. Few 1200, scattered 3000, overcast 5000, temperature 15, dew point 8, QNH 998 hectopascals. IFR approach is ILS or visual, runway 26 left and runway 26 right. Departures, runway 26 right. GPS approaches available. VFR aircraft say direction of flight. All aircraft read back all hold short instructions. Inform ATC that you have information Bravo.

Unit 2 Exercise 17

Lahoa FIR SIGMET timed 1200 hours. Volcanic cloud reported drifting south west of Lahoa. From 2000 up to 10000 feet.

Tripoli VOLMET special broadcast at 0030. Heavy sandstorm reported south of Tripoli from ground level up to 9000 feet. Tripoli airport closed. Special SIGMET.

Antalya VOLMET special broadcast at 1000. Antalya airport closed due to earth tremors.

X-1234, heavy storms approaching the vicinity of the airport. Also, severe wind shear reported at 800 feet during last 30 minutes. Suggest you delay your departure.

Strong wind warning. Initially gusts around 25 knots, but gradually increasing during the afternoon to reach 35 knots by 2000 Z.

Unit 3 Exercise 2

United 439 holding on taxiway L.

United 439, hold position. There’s an aircraft de-icer at stand 62 blocking your stand. BA Bus Number 5, where are you?

Stand 52, waiting to depart. Number 5 Bus.

Roger, BA bus. Hang on. I’ve got a fire tender outbound at taxiway B, repeat B.

Roger that. Holding.

Ryanair 372 request push back stand 53.

Push back approved, 372.

United 439 holding on taxiway L. Is there a problem at stand 63?

Hold position, 439. There’s a maintenance truck leaving your stand. Ryanair 355 proceed to intersection MA, hold short of the runway. Expect delay. A sweeper is still clearning runway 05.

United 439 holding on L.

Stand by, 439.

Ryanair 355 holding short of runway 05.

355, line up and wait. The sweeper is leaving the runway. Cleared for take-off.

Cleared for take-off, Ryanair 355.

Unit 3 Exercise 4

Tug 3, report when ready to vacate stand 6. Lufthansa 158 approaching.

Ground, KLM 219 runway 24 clear. Holding. Listen, can I change stand? I have to be near our maintenance area. I have a flat tire on the nose gear.

KLM 219, do you need a push-back tug?

Hang on a minute. Hello. Hello. I can’t hear. I’ve got a radio problem. Tug 3.

Lufthansa 158, slow down, taxi slowly to intersection D4. KLM 219, stand by. Tug 3, vacate stand 6. Report.

Taxiing slowly. Stand 6 in sight and still blocked. Request stand change. Lufthansa 158.

KLM 219, still holding. Did you get my message? Confirm stand, please.

Ground, read you now. Stand 6 vacated. Tug 3.

Roger Tug 3. Lufthansa 158, stand 6 is cleared. Proceed straight ahead. Break break. KLM 219, hold position. Give way to 757 on taxiway Z.

Holding position, KLM 219.

Stand 6 confirmed. Lufthansa 158

KLM 219, stand 19 is clear. A maintenance truck is on its way for your flat. Taxi with caution due to works. Keep well to the left.

Stand 19. Hey, I can see lots of works. Request closest available stand. KLM 219.

This is it, KLM confirm stand 19.

Ground, request proceed to construction works near stand 19.

Hold Works 24, stand 19 already has a fuel tanker waiting and a push-back tug there, and I can see heavy plant nearby. Is this urgent Works 24?

Negative, Ground. I can wait until the heavy has refueled.

KLM 219, I don’t want to be difficult, but with a flat tire, I need the nearest stand available. Is that possible?

Negative. Turn right onto L, taxi with caution, go beyond the works to stand 19. Confirm, KLM 219.

Confirm stand 19. KLM 219.

Unit 3 Exercise 10

1 Be informed. Centreline lights out of order on runway 27.

2 Caution. Construction work at the edge of the taxiway. It’s marked by red flags.

3 Be advised. Ice reported at the holding area. Braking action poor. Caution.

4 Be advised. Standing water at the midpoint on the runway.

5 Caution. Slush on stand E40.

6 Be advised. Edge of apron partly covered with gravel opposite the terminal building.

Unit 3 Exercise 13

Finnair 2115, taxi with caution. A snowplough is proceeding to the intersection.

Roger, Finnair 2115.

Singapore 107, de-icing finished more than 10 minutes ago. The de-icer trucks have already left. Request immediate start-up to meet my slot time of 25.

Negative, Singapore 107. You have a new slot time of 40, repeat 40.

Singapore 107, confirm new slot time of 40, but still expect to start-up because de-icing is already done. Can you put me on request for slot before 40?

Singapore 107, stand by. I’ll call you back in a few seconds. Finnair 2115 slow down, hold position at intersection. Snowplough and sweepers at work. Singapore 107, slot time still 40.

Roger, Singapore 107.

Finnair 2115 taxiing slowly to intersection, but I can see snowplough is just moving off. Should I still hold position?

Finnair 2115, carry on straight ahead. Caution watch out for gusting winds, wind shear reported.

Ground, Singapore 107 request urgent start-up, or I’ll have to get de-icing again.

Negative, Singapore 107. Expect further delays. Snow banks are building up on compacted snow at the end of the taxiway.

How much longer do I have to wait? Singapore 107.

I’ll call you back in a moment, Singapore 107.

Unit 3 Exercise 15

Speedbird 937, push back approved.

Speedbird 937 is pushing back.

Roger Speedbird 937, taxi to runway 24 via taxiway B1 to holding point L3. Report holding point L3. Wind 180 degrees, 5 knots. QNH 1010, time 23.

Speedbird 937 to holding point L3 via taxiway … Speedbird 937 at holding point L3 ready for immediate departure.

Speedbird 937 maintain position at L3. Wait for landing Airbus 320 to vacate runway 24.

Holding position at L3, waiting for A320 to vacate, Speedbird 937.

Speedbird 937 line up and hold. Prepare for departure. Er, 937, hold position, I say again hold position at L3. Cancel line up. Acknowledge.

Holding position at L3. Speedbird 937.

Speedbird 937. I can’t issue take off clearance. There seems to be a problem. The Airbus 320 has stopped on the runway. Stand by, Speedbird 937

Roger, Speedbird 937.

Unit 3 Exercise 18

Speedbird 937, the problem seems to be over. The Airbus 320 is being towed off runway 24 because of a major engine failure. Expect further delay due to sweepers clearing debris. It should take no more than 5 or 6 minutes.

Roger. Speedbird 937.

Speedbird 937, prepare for immediate departure.

Ready for immediate departure Speedbird 937.

Speedbird 937, runway 24 cleared for take-off.

Runway 24 cleared for take-off. Speedbird 937.

Unit 4 Exercise 1

Exchange 1

456, expedite taxi to runway 06 left.

Which holding point are we heading for?

It’s usually A, but I’m taking AG. We get a shorter runway, but it’s still OK. I never like this runway. That rise in the middle blocks the view. You can’t see the other end until you’re at the midpoint.

456, line up and take off immediately runway 06 left.

Taking off. Runway 06 left. 456. There are vehicles on the runway!

We’ll make it. V1 … rotate.

What the hell …

Looked like works of some sort.

Control, we’ve just had a near miss with some vehicles near the end of the runway.

Yeah, we saw 456. You cleared them by about 50 feet. You entered the runway at the wrong point. We do not have the full length available today.

Exchange 2

BVL, for identification purposes, could you to turn left heading 340. BVL. Identified. Maintain flight level 190. After passing GANET turn left heading 270.

Flight level 190, turn left heading 270. BVL.

Exchange 3

N355, climb flight level 80.

Climbing flight level 90. N355.

N355, I say again flight level 80, 80. Keep at flight level 80 due traffic. You’re up at 8600 feet already. Descend immediately.

Did you say flight level 80? Are you sure? N355.

Affirm, N355. Descend immediately. There’s inbound traffic at 6 miles now, flight level 90.

Exchange 4

GBL, airborne 1905. Climb straight ahead heading 050. Report when you’re past 5000 feet.

Roger GBL. Passing 5000 feet, GBL.

GBL, continue climb flight level 120. No speed restrictions.

Traffic, traffic. Descend, descend.

TCAS descend, GBL.

Clear of conflict.

Clear of conflict. Level at 5000. GBL.

GBL, roger. GBL, maintain 5000 feet. Turn right heading 090. GBL, clear of traffic. Heading 350. Continue climb flight level 120 and call on reaching.

Can you confirm climb back 120? GBL.

GBL, affirm. Flight level 120. Heading 350. Do you want to file a report?

Er – affirm …

Exchange 5

N3E, what’s your level?

Just out of 5500 for flight level 150. Heading 050. N3E.

N3E, are you able to level off at 6000 feet?

Affirm. Maintaining 6000 feet. Can I stay on same heading? N3E.

N3E, just stay on the same heading for the time being. You have opposite traffic 7000 feet. Expect further climb shortly.

Exchange 6

D6V, this is en route holding. Make one right hand orbit in your present position and leave on heading 130. Report abeam HOLLY.

Sorry – we’re not very keen on orbiting. Do you mind if we have level change instead? D6V.

D6V, stand by for level change.

D6V, level change approved. Cleared to 160. Same heading. Expect further clearance at 16. Landing delays at Milan 15 minutes.

Exchange 7

C23 cleared for take off, wind 085 degrees, 15 knots.

Cleared for take off, C23.

OK, we’re got a red on hydraulics – and on flight controls. Rudder hydraulics on the overhead … Red’s everywhere now. Do you want …

C23, abort your take off. Abort your take off. You’ve got smoke coming from one of your engines. Abort your take off.

Aborting take off. Where’s the smoke coming from?

It appears to be from the central engine by the looks of it – number 2.

Closing down number 2.

Unit 4 Exercise 4

Exchange 1

Did you say you checked the QNH setting?

Yeah, it’s fine.

Exchange 2

Are you sure you want us to use taxiway X?

Sorry, no. Taxiway P.

Exchange 3

Sorry, can we use runway 23 instead of runway 28?

Yep, that’s fine.

Exchange 4

Did you say you wanted medical assistance?

Yes, please.

Exchange 5

Can I change to flight level 350 rather than 310?

As you wish. Flight level 350.

Exchange 6

Can you confirm you’ve reached flight level 150?

Sure – just approaching 150 now.

Unit 4 Exercise 5

L556, are you ready for departure?

Ready, L556.

L556, cleared for take off. Wind 270 degrees, 5 knots.

Cleared for take off. L556.

L556, be advised, helicopter at the end of runway 27 left.

Rolling. We have no visual contact. No helicopter in sight. L556.

L556, yes sir. Helicopter at the end of the runway. He’s just come from the north. Continue departure.

We have no visual with helicopter. Are you sure? L556.

Ah – L556, the helicopter is above the runway, sir.

What? He’s not even on the ground?

Ah! I’ve got him. No conflict. Over there, look! He’s hovering about 100 feet up at 3 o’clock. Across the airfield near the chimney. Just in front of that large building.


Well over to the right. Beyond the car park, behind the trees, next to the chimney. In fact if he gets any closer he’ll bump into it! It’s fine. No problem. He’s well below our path.

Unit 4 Exercise 9

YB, look out for slow-moving traffic 6 miles ahead of you. You’ll pass over him.

YB, avoiding action. Turn left immediately heading 270 degrees, opposite traffic at 12 o’clock.

YB, traffic on your left, 6 miles overtaking. Same level.

YB, be informed. Fast-moving traffic at 2 o’clock, 6 miles crossing right to left. 1000 feet below.

YB, conflicting traffic at 9 o’clock.

YB, traffic 3 o’clock, 8 miles parallel. DC10 1000 feet below, climbing.

YB, maintain flight level 80 due converging traffic 10 o’clock, 15 miles, 1000 feet below. Maintain 80 until further advised.

YB, you’re well clear of traffic. He’s diverging away from you. In your 2 o’clock position.

Unit 4 Exercise 12

B550 we have a report of some vapour streaming aft of you.

Tumbiki Control, thanks. Sounds like we’re losing some fuel. We’re declaring an emergency. Returning to Tumbiki. B550.

B550, roger. Do you want to dump any fuel?

Affirmative. I’ll have to get rid of some. I can’t risk any overheating of the brake units. And I certainly don’t want any fuel spilling onto hot brakes. B550

B550, do you require any airport services?

Affirmative. I need some protection, please. Fire and rescue services required. B550.

Unit 5 Exercise 1

Be informed. Weather balloon drifting across your path from right to left. Level unknown, but it’s approximately 4 miles north-east of your current position.

Caution. Obstacle warning light on top of Marchwood Power Station inoperable.

Be advised. Fuel dumping in progress 20 miles east of Aberdeen. Eastbound. Flight level 100. Avoid flight within 5 miles at this level. If within 5 miles remain at least 1000 above or 2000 feet below this aircraft.

Be informed. In-flight refueling in progress 5 miles south of Land’s End. Likely to continue until 1500 UTC.

Fireworks display within 1 mile radius of Exeter, Devon. Planned start time is 2000 and is expected to last 30 minutes. On site contact 791615.

Unit 5 Exercise 4

Be advised. Hang gliding competition at Merthyr. Original start time was 0900 Z. This is now delayed and restrictions for other traffic will become effective at 1115 Z and remain in force until 2059 Z.

Free-fall drop zone established at Land’s End 1,5 miles radius of 5006.17 N, 0054.023 W up to flight level 150. Drop time 1000 UTC. Be advised that there are 2 jump ships cruising at 90 knots, crossing the airway from right to left. Because of the large numbers involved, traffic restrictions have been extended until 1100 UTC.

Be advised. Fighter training over Brecon Beacons was due to start at 1330. This has been brought forward and restrictions will now take effect from 1200 and will last until 2200.

Be advised. The Bath hot air balloon event scheduled for 1000 UTC until 1300 UTC is starting late. Start time is now 1100 UTC and traffic restrictions will be suspended until 1030 UTC. They will now remain in force until 1400 UTC. Expect mass launches of hot air balloons. Up to 35 balloons may participate during each 30 minute launch period and may be found up to 20 miles downwind of launch sites. Pilots are requested to exercise caution in the vicinity. Controlled airspace will be avoided unless approved by ATC.

Laser testing finished early at 0930 UTC, so traffic restrictions in the Hatfield area cancelled.

Unit 5 Exercise 7

Exchange 1

We didn’t expect it so bumpy up here! Would you check if there’s any traffic ahead of us? We may need better separation. B333.

B333, affirm. You have traffic ahead. It’s a 747. Must be wake turbulence. Would you like a higher level?

Affirm. We’d certainly like a more comfortable ride. B333.

B333, roger. Climb flight level 270 – it should be free of turbulence. Expect further climb at 45. If you have any further problems, please advise.

Exchange 2

Er, we’ve got a problem. This is the slowest climb out ever! We’ve lost engine number 1.

Bank angle, bank angle.

Buck 36, something large has fallen off your plane.

This is more serious than I thought. Declare an emergency.

Buck 36, are you returning to Lohoa?

Roger. Returning. Buck 36.

Exchange 3

Control, request diversion to the nearest airport. AF39.

AF39, understand you are requesting diversion.


AF39, turn left heading 270. Can you give me a reason for the diversion?

Sure. We have a smell of exhaust fumes in the cockpit.

Is there any smoke?

Negative. No smoke, but the smell is getting stronger. AF39.

Roger. Continue heading and contact 118.6.

Unit 5 Exercise 12

Exchange 1

OK – we’re fine at this level. Next time please give us at least 6 miles behind a heavy. B333.

Exchange 2

We’re turning back to Lohoa. I think it was the engine … the engine fell ooff.

Buck 36, say your intentions.

We are going to maintain this heading. We’re having problems with speed and with flight controls. Buck 36.

Buck 36, roger. Choose your runway. We’ll clear everything. Are you able to maintain terrain clearance?

Affirmative. We are maintaining 1500 feet. We need to get rid of fuel. Buck 36.

Buck 36, roger.

All right. I want runway 6 left.

Buck 36, runway 6 left, cleared to land.

All right. All right. We’re landing 6 left. Buck 36.

Buck 36, all the gear appears good.

Thank you. Buck 36. Heh-heh … we did it!

Affirm 36. You did a good job!

Exchange 3

Pan-pan, pan-pan, pan-pan, Fairview Tower. Fumes in cockpit. Request priority landing. AF39 pan-pan.

AF39 pan-pan, Fairview Tower. You are number one. Cleared to land. Straight in. Runway 17, wind 170 degrees, eight knots. QNH 1008. Fire service requested.

Runway 17, QNH 1008, AF39 pan-pan.

Take first right when vacated. Contact Fire Service directly on 118.5.

First right, 118.5, AF39 pan-pan.

AF39, Fire Service 1. Suggest you evacuate your passengers as soon as possible,sir. Fire Service 1.

Do I need an emergency evacuation, Fire Service 1? We’ve still got a strong smell of fumes – we may have an oil leak somewhere.

Negative, AF39. That won’t be necessary. The passengers can disembark normally. The bus is just pulling up now to take them to the terminal. We’ll come on board as soon as you’re all clear. Fire Service 1.

Unit 5 Exercise 14

Exchange 1

We have a passenger with severe chest pain and is clearly not at all well. We’ve got him on oxygen.

OK, is the pain a really crushing pain? Maybe moving into his jaw or left arm?


Shortness of breath?


Have you worked out if …

Exchange 2

We have a problem with a diabetic patient. He’s quite aggressive, but his wife assures us it’s because he’s diabetic. Apparently he took his insulin before coming on board as he was expecting to eat shortly afterwards. We were delayed though and sat on the tarmac for an hour and a half so he hasn’t eaten. His wife is very worried …

Exchange 3

We have a passenger who’s had a seizure and the cabin crew are very concerned. She’s epileptic apparently. It started off with some twitching of her face and hands, but it’s gradually got worse and worse. Her arms and legs have been jerking all over the place. She seems to have stopped that now, but she’s not awake.

OK – it’s not uncommon for an epileptic to lose consciousness. Maybe even for a few minutes. Just make sure she’s comfortable and cannot fall and hurt herself …

Exchange 4

We have a distressed passenger. He’s asthmatic and has packed his inhaler in the hold. We don’t appear to have a doctor on board. This guy’s having lots of trouble breathing.

Don’t worry that you haven’t got a doctor. It’s quite manageable. You should find an inhaler in your own medical kit. He’ll know how to use it if he uses one regularly …

Exchange 5

We have a passenger – a young boy – with really nasty stomach pains. The crew are very worried it may be appendicitis. If it is, will we have to divert?

It’s certainly possible, but tell me why they think it’s appendicitis.

Well – it’s really painful – the poor kid’s in agony. The face is really red.

Did it come on suddenly?

It seems to have done.

And is it made worse by movement?

Definitely. And his stomach’s like a board …

Exchange 6

Do you require medical assistance?

Yes, we do, thank you. We’ve got a passenger who’s fallen and cut his head badly. He’s bleeding a lot and there’s blood everywhere – he’s got a massive bruise all down the side of his face, too.

Has he lost consciousness at all – or is he just …

Unit 6 Exercise 1

Part 1

Big-B 276, Wessex Approach. Joining the hold. Maintaining 8000 feet.

276, maintain 8000 feet. We are experiencing some delays here.

What’s the problem? 276.

276. I’m sorry, sir – we had delays earlier today. We had some jet blast damage just behind the threshold. It took a long time to clear it all. That’s why everyone’s backed up.

So how long can I expect to wait? I need to get down before 2300, don’t I?

Indeed you do, sir. Noise abatement regulations are very strict here. At the moment it’s a bit difficult to say – delays will be about half an hour, at least.

Part 2

Wessex Approach, Big-B 276. Can you give me an update?

I think you may be waiting quite a while. I’ll get back to you shortly. You can now descend in the hold to 6000 feet. Report passing 7000. And if you could reduce to – er – 180 – that’d be good. Just for a bit of spacing from the one ahead of you.

Roger. Out of 8000 feet for 6000 feet. 276.

Part 3

Big-B 276, Wessex Approach. I’m sorry sir, but I’m going to have to divert you to Exeter. There isn’t time to get you on the ground before the night noise curfew takes effect. Climb immediately to 9000 feet heading …

Unit 6 Exercise 5

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. This is the captain again. I apologize for the delay this evening. I’m afraid there are severe delays at Wessex due to air traffic. Wessex has got a noise abatement curfew, so we can’t land after 11 p.m. We’ve been diverted to Exeter. Please accept our sincere apologies for the inconvenience. We know this will mess up a lot of your plans. The cabin crew will continue to look after you until we reach Exeter. Ground staff in Exeter will be available to make to make sure you reach your final destination as soon as possible.

Unit 6 Exercise 8

Exchange 1

Alitalia 29, if you could come back to final approach speed – there are a couple of aircraft want to get off ahead of you.

We’re just below 300 metres.

I’m just waiting for one to get airborne. OK, keep a high speed as much as you can all the way down.

Exchange 2

Aeroflot 339, heading 090 will not take us to the localiser. We should need to turn to the right, turning right heading 110 to establish.

OK, the radar shows you just about on the centerline now, but you can adjust your heading as required.

Exchange 3

Speedbird 34, if you’re able – reduce to about – er – 190. Continue heading 250.

Exchange 4

Lufthansa 1390, we are visual. Requesting visual approach. We’ve got the Aeroflot traffic above us slightly to the left.

OK, he’s going around. You’re number 2 in the sequence and you’re cleared for a visual right hand runway 10.

Exchange 5

Austrian 26, OK, you can’t land from this approach now. I’ve put someone ahead of you. Just continue on track 009, please. I’ll give you further vectors back to the ILS.

Exchange 6

Speedbird 440, you’re identified. What’s your passing altitude?

Unit 6 Exercise 9

Petersburg Approach, KLM 405.

KLM 405, Petersburg Approach. Maintain altitude 2400 meters.

KLM 405 maintaining altitude 2400 meters.

Report KE KLM 405.

KE time 26, altitude 2400 meters. Estimating OLSON 28. Request descent.

KLM 405, descend altitude 1500 meters.

Descending 1500 meters. KLM 405.

Maintain altitude 1500 meters, QNH 1008. Report speed 405.

220 knots reducing to 190 knots, 1008, KLM 405.

Roger, KLM 405.

Unit 6 Exercise 10-11

Information Romeo: 2000 Z scattered 8000, visibility 14 kilometres, temperature 44, wind 310, 8 knots, altimeter 30.00, expect ILS or visual to runway 24 and 33, advise on first contact you have information Romeo.

Unit 6 Exercise 13

KLM 405, continue heading 270, descend 900 metres, reduce speed 180 knots, and report outer marker for runway 28 left.

Heading 270, descend 900 metres, reduce speed 180 knots, will report outer marker for runway 28 left. KLM 405.

KLM 405, be advised of wet conditions on runway 28 left. A mix of slush and rain. Lots of standing water.

Approach, can I change runway? KLM 405.

Negative. Reports of wet conditions are not critical, but adjust your speed, 405.

I’m pretty heavy. Listen, I’m overshooting. 405.

Confirm 405, are you going around?

Affirm. 405 is going around, I say again going around.

Understood 405 going around. Climb straight ahead …

Unit 6 Exercise 14

Approach, KLM 405, established on ILS 28 right. What’s the situation with the runway?

KLM 405, surface conditions no better no worse. Runway wet, slush in patches, there’s slight aquaplaning reported, braking action good. Continue approach on ILS, you are number 2, number 1 is touching down. Be sure to check your speed on final.

Thanks. Continuing approach, KLM 405.

Unit 6 Exercise 16

Bradley Approach, American 745 at 8000 feet with Romeo.

Roger American 745. Heading 330. Descend to 5000 feet, vectors to runway 33, traffic pattern for the visual approach.

Approach, American 745. We have you in sight.

Cleared for visual approach runway 33. Uh, hang on, American 745. We got quite a bit of traffic here today. Do you mind going for runway 24?

Runway 24? No problem.

OK, set up downwind for 24, steer 060, American 745.

Affirmative, we’ll go runway 24. I also need a favour. The crew have just reported a sick passenger. Would you organize an ambulance on arrival?

Affirm, American 745. There’s an A320 ahead of you on 2 mile short final. Well ahead of you. You are number 2. Cleared for visual approach runway 24. Contact Tower on 120.20.

Good evening Bradley Tower, American 745 downwind for 24.

American 745, cleared to land.

Cleared to land, American 745.

Unit 6 Exercise 18

F22, Newbury Tower. Turn right heading 060. Reduce speed to 180 knots.

Turning right heading 060. Speed now 200 knots. Turning base leg. F22.

F22, cleared altitude 2500 feet. Say again 2500 feet. You’re already lower than that. You must stay above 2500 feet.

2500. F22. 2500.

F22, yes – you’re still too low – you have to be above 2500 feet. If you could climb back up to 2500 please and turn right now onto 120 degrees.

Turning 120, F22.

F22, you are still descending! You must climb now. Climb 2500 feet.

2500 feet. F22.

F22, climb immediately. There is a mast 4 miles due east of your current position. Height is 1300 feet. When you get to it, it’ll be higher than you. F22, QNH 982. Can you confirm you are indicating 1500?

Just got it now and climbing. Reading 2000 feet. F22.

F22, you can level off at 2000 feet please to intercept the glidepath at 7 miles. You are now clear of the TV mast.

Unit 7 Exercise 5

There’s no ECAM message so why don’t you check the handbook now, so we can work out how to get this thing down safely.

Would you like me to put you through to your company?

Possibly. Perhaps you could give me a few minutes to check the handbook and then call back?

Roger. I’ll call you back in 2 minutes, shall I?


We’ve no idea whether the whole of the nose gear is damaged. I think we ought to assume it may all collapse when we land.

Sure. Landing with abnormal gear – here it is. First problem is that if the gear collapses then both engine nacelles will contact the runway.

Couldn’t we shut down just as we land?

Yeah, you’d better shut down for sure, but I don’t think you should leave it too late though. The procedure is to shut down before or during the landing roll. I know you want all the services as long as possible but if I were you, I’d shut down sooner rather than later.

Unit 7 Exercise 7

SAS 105, your company engineers have requested a low pass to inspect the gear. You could do that as soon as you’re ready. The engineers will give you a visual inspection of the landing gear.

Roger. Sounds good. Why don’t we come down to about 500 feet?

OK, try it. Fly level past the runway threshold.

Roger. OK – we’re at 500 feet.

Yeah, we know. It’s not low enough. The gear’s down but we need a much closer look. What about going down to 300 feet?

Shall I go down to 200?

OK, yes. I think you should because it’s really difficult to see much at the moment. OK, OK, that’s great. Yeah – left nose wheel is definitely missing but the right nose wheel is in place. So, heading 320 climb to 3000 feet. You’ll get onward clearance shortly to rejoin the holding stack.


Unit 7 Exercise 8

SAS105, what’s the fuel situation?

We’re at maximum weight but I don’t want to wait any longer. It’ll be dark soon. SAS105.

OK, SAS105. I know you didn’t specifically request foam, but expect foam carpet in approximately 15 minutes. How many passengers aboard?

237 plus 8 crew. All services needed. SAS105.

Roger, 105. SAS105, cleared for straight-in approach. Runway 06 left. Wind 025, 10 knots. QNH 1008. Fire services advised.

105 is established.

105, continue to reduce speed. The foam carpet begins 500 metres after the threshold and continues for further 700 metres. 15 metres wide.

Roger. 105.

Unit 7 Exercise 12

Exchange 1

What are runway conditions like?

Braking action is poor and there’s heavy slush reported at the far end of the runway.

Exchange 2

Varig 107, please note some of the centerline lights are missing in the approach lighting.

107 roger, you can turn off the sequence flashers. The runway is beautifully clear. In fact can you turn the other lights down. They’re a bit bright.

OK, wilco.

Exchange 3

EZ250, heavy rain and strong crosswinds reported. Caution. Wind shear on short final.

Exchange 4

Reduce speed to140 to avoid running into vortex wake of the A320 ahead of you.

Exchange 5

Pan-pan, pan-pan, pan-pan, Bellevue Approach, GAB737, request emergency medical support on landing for passenger with suspected heart attack. Number 4 to land on straight-in approach.

Roger, GAB pan-pan, after landing can you make it to stand 17 – the nearest available?

What’s the distance?

It’ll take about 12 minutes after vacating the runway, GAB pan-pan.

Don’t think so …

Unit 8 Exercise 8

American 99 Heavy, Ground. Left turn on 22 right, left turn at F, right turn B.

We were given our gate earlier, if it’s still open, but we need to get past the 757 in front of us.

99 Heavy, you can go behind the 727 and continue. Gate 47 is all clear.

It’s a 757, Ground.

Oh, OK. Sorry, my strip says 727.

No problem. Taxiing to gate 47. American 99.

Delta 31, continue A, hold short of M.

A short of M, Delta 31.

921 Heavy, you’re short of MA?

Yes sir, just short of MA. We’re cleared into the gate.

Taxi to ramp, good day. Delta 31, give way to the A320 entering taxiway A5. Then continue to MA. Your stand is 54.

Ground, the A320 is already past. Ready to roll, proceeding to MA. Gate 54, Delta 31.

Ground, Maintenance 21, stand 27. Request proceed to work in progress taxiway L.

Stand by Maintenance 21. Jetblue are you with me again? OK, Maintenance 21 proceed to taxiway L via Z and A.

Proceeding to taxiway L via Z and A, Maintenance 21.

Jetblue, are you back with me again? Jetblue, are you the one who reported the number of the truck crossing at the intersection? Just standby one second, OK.

China 982, holding ready to taxi.

I’m sorry, hold China 982. Sorry, Freedom Air, say again.

Air China 982 holding.

Yes, Air China, I heard you. Who’s the Freedom Air calling?

Freedom 6182 being blocked by Air China, M short of AN.

6182, I have your request, stand by. Air China what did you want?

Air China 982 holding.

OK Jetblue, what happened with the truck?

We came out of W, turned right, and were crossed by a truck. I noted the number. It was 1097.

You think it was a flat-bed – 1097, mostly white?

Absolutely, it was … er … it was a tractor pulling a flatbed.

China 982 ready to taxi.

Ground, China 982, I heard you. Stand by.

Holding. China 982.

It was crossing right at the WA intersection. I’d appreciate you reporting.

Air China left turn on 22 right, left turn at F, right turn B to stand 56.

Turn right on 22 right, left turn at …

Negative Air China 982, turn left, repeat left on 22 right, then left at F, right turn B. Acknowledge.

China 982 turn left on 22 right, then left at F, turn right B.

Freedom 6182, wait for Air China Heavy to vacate 22 right. Then continue, turn right at F. Your gate is 52. Caution, construction work at end of gate.

Freedom 6182 taxiing, right turn at F, proceeding to gate 52, caution construction work at 52.